- F-FDTL HISTORY
The Timor-Leste Defense Forces (FALINTIL-FDTL) were created through regulation of UNTAET (United Nations Transitional Administration in (UNTAET / REG / 2001 /) dated 31 January 2001. Based on a study prepared by King’s College in London entitled Independent Study on Security Force Options for Timor-Leste (2000) and a proposal from the National Timorese Resistance Council (CNRT), with the support of some countries donors The United Nations has decided to create the FALINTIL-FDTL with the mission to provide a military defense of its territory and its people, as well as to provide assistance to the civil community.The option chosen was the so-called “3rd Option” of that study, which pointed to a light infantry force of 1500 men and 1500 reservists with an organization that included a joint command, a Regular Forces component consisting of two light infantry battalions and a naval component, plus an instruction center and a logistical base and a Reserve Forces component. The initial training took place in Aileu, the last cantonment of the FALINTIL, and the selection and recruitment process began around 1700 FALINTIL volunteers. Approximately 650 were assigned to the 1st F-FDTL Battalion, to the naval component, elements to the General Staff and to the Formation Unit that was to be stationed in Metinaro (Center Instruction Commander Nicolau Lobato).
Some donor countries such as Australia, South Korea, New Zealand and Portugal contributed to this initial training, which, in addition to specialized selection and recruitment staff, contributed equipment and materials and started to build some infrastructure (CICNL) and went through Portugal, donated two boats of the class Albatroz that would be the embryo of the Naval Component.
The training began on January 29, 2001 in Aileu. In the first phase, 250 guerrillas were selected and had participated training course for became the officers and sergeants. A Group of 66 officers and 124 sergeants were then created. In a second phase already in Metinaro, the formation of about 400 soldiers destined to the category of squares was realized. It should be noted that initially the Naval Component received 60 of the 600 military personnel initially formed. After its creation, the 1st Battalion of the F-FDTL would be engaged in the eastern tip (Lospalos).
The King’s College study was the F-FDTL’s initial strategic orientation document. However, in 2004 the F-FDTL Commander Taur Matan Ruak formed a task force to prepare an F-FDTL development strategy. The Force 2020 report was completed in 2006 and was made public in 2007. This study has served as a basis for the development and consolidation of F-FDTL in the current structure.
According to this study, the F-FDTL are now organized in a Headquarters, five components, Land, Naval, Air (to raise) Service Support and Education and Training and two independent units, the Military Police and the Falintil Unit.However, it is important to highlight some initiatives that have focused on the Security Sector Reform in Timor-Leste, which included the organization of various seminars, the involvement of Timorese political-military leadership, which, with the support of the UN and some donor countries, sought to improve security and defense. Despite the seriousness of some crises, namely the one experienced between 2006 and 2008, which has led to the removal of about 600 military personnel, a path has been pursued that seeks to develop F-FDTL as a credible, professional and conventional force with be able to act in the whole spectrum of conflicts. It should be noted that, in carrying out one of the missions that have since been assigned to it, the
F-FDTL have already participated in two peace operations, one in Lebanon, where it participated with a force of 11 men from the Engineering unit and in South Sudan where over the course of three years, nine military officers there carried out military observer missions. The F-FDTL commanders have so far been:
2001-2011 – Taur Matan Ruak
2011 – Lere Anan Timur
2. F-FDTL STRUCTURE
a. A true structure of F-FDTL is defined in Decree-Law no. 15/2006, of 8 November, Organic Statute of FALINTIL-FDTL.
b. The F-FDTL’s mission is defined in the Constitution of the RDTL, the National Defense Law and the document cited above (Organic Statute). Thus, in general, one can say that an F-FDTL mission develops according to the following vectors:
• Military defense against any external threat in any form, guaranteeing the national independence, the territoriality, the freedom and the security of the population, in compliance with the constitutionals order.
• Support to other the security forces and civil protection authorities within the Integrated National Security System and when the Joint Operational Commitment is decided.• Support to the population, both in terms of meeting basic needs and improving the quality of life of the population.
• Support to the state’s foreign policy, through actions of Technical-Military Cooperation, participation in Peace and Humanitarian Support Operations and others that may be determinated under international agreements.
c. The F-FDTL obey the competent organs of sovereign, under the terms of the Constitution and the law, are nonpartisan and a unique organization for the whole country. As F-FDTL is part of the direct administration of the State, through the Ministry of Defense. d. The structure of the F-FDTL comprises:
• The General Staff of the F-FDTL;
• The military organs of the Command of the Armed Forces;
• Component Commands; e. In the General Staff is in the Support Groups of the CEMG, responsible for ensuring the activities of the F-FDTL in the areas of Justice, Finance and Procurement, and the Coordinating Staff, which are the main planning organs to design and support the decision of the CEMG.
f. The organization of the F-FDTL also comprises the Components and Units, as follows:
• Land Force component;
• Component of the Light Naval Force;
• Air Support Component (not raised);
• Service Support Component;
• Education and Training component;
• Military Police Unit;
• Falintil Unit.
g. The structure of the F-FDTL comprises an operational structure, comprising the set of forces and means of support and a territorial structure constituted by the organs and services necessary for the general support of the F-FDTL.
- COMPETENCIES OF THE VICE-CHIEF OF THE GENERAL STAFF OF THE F-FDTL
- The Deputy Chief of Staff of the F-FDTL, is a general officer (Brig-general), immediate collaborator of the Chief of General Staff of the F-FDTL.
- The Deputy Chief of General Staff of the F-FDTL (VCEMG F-FDTL) has in its dependence the Supporting organs of the CEMG of the F-FDTL.
3. COMPETENCES OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF
- The F-FDTL Chief of Staff is responsible for the operation of the Joint Coordinating Staff, which is the planning and decision-making body of the Chief of General Staff of the F-FDTL.
- He is the Chairman of the F-FDTL Promotions Council.
- As Chief of Staff, he directs and coordinates the activities of the Joint Coordinating Staff and ensures that the various staff activities are carried out.
4. LAND COMPONENT
1) To participate and cooperate in an integrated way in the military defense of the RDTL, through the accomplishment of terrestrial operations, in order to contribute to the guarantee of national independence, the integrity of the territory and the freedom and security of the populations against any aggression or threat which is of external origin.
2) Prepare the Forces and land units for military employment and carry out other missions of public interest and support of the foreign policy of the State, participating in the satisfaction of their respective international commitments.
3) To collaborate in the specific missions assigned to him in time of peace or in situations of tension or crisis and conflict.
The Land Component has the command stationed in Baucau and has the following organization:
3) North Sector
4) South Sector
5) Operational Ground Force
5. NAVAL COMPONENT
1) To participate and cooperate in an integrated manner in the military defense of the RDTL by carrying out naval operations in order to contribute to the guarantee of national independence, the integrity of the territory and the freedom and security of the population against any aggression or threat which is of external origin.
2) Prepare the Forces and naval units for military employment and carry out other missions of public interest with special relevance in the scope of Maritime Safety and support of the foreign policy of the State, participating in the satisfaction of the respective international commitments.
3) To collaborate in the specific missions assigned to Naval Component in time of peace or in situations of tension or crisis and conflict.
- Organization The Naval Component is organized as follows:
2) Staff and Command Support organs
3) Naval Support Service Command
5) School of Naval Technologies
6) Amphibian Force Command
6. SUPPORT COMPONENT OF SERVICES
1) To cooperate, in an integrated manner, in the military defense of the RDTL, considering the geographical characteristics of the country, in order to ensure joint and integrated logistical support to the F-FDTL components, with special attention to the territorial distribution of CFT, of operations to the various levels, through its functional logistic elements.
2) Prepares the Combat Services Support Units for General Support and Direct Support to the military employment of the Components and carries out other missions of public interest with special relevance in the scope of Civil-Military Cooperation and support of the State’s foreign policy, participating in meeting their international commitments.
3) To collaborate in the specific missions assigned to Suport Component in time of peace or in situations of tension or crisis and conflict
The Service Support Component is based in Metinaro and has the following organization:
3) Refueling Company
4) Transportation Company
5) Maintenance Company
6) Sanitary Company
7) Communications Company
8) Engineering Company
7. EDUCATION AND TRAINING COMPONENT
1) To integrate the F-FDTL Education System, ensuring the basic, complementary and continuous military training of all its military personnel, in order to enable them in the exercise of their functions corresponding to their positions and classes in the approved organic structure, according to the training courses approved according to the established technical-professional profiles.
2) Assures, through its departmental structure, the Training Center and other military education establishments, the activities of Education, Training and doctrinal production, through the training model based in the Systemic Approach to Education. For this purpose, functional authority is conferred on all other Components.
3) To collaborate in the specific missions assigned to him in time of peace, or in situations of tension or crisis and conflict.
The Education and Training Component is based in Metinaro and has the following organization:
3) Support Department
4) Department of Education
5) Education and Training Department
6) Instruction Center Commander Nicolau Lobato
7) Band of Music
8. AIR COMPONENT (NOT RAISED)
9. MILITARY POLICE
1) The PM is a unit within the direct dependence of the CEMG of the F-FDTL whose general mission is to guarantee order and internal discipline in the F-FDTL, enforcing all the regulations and determinations in force, in order to ensure the prevention and deterrence threats to military security, including subversion and other military discipline and integrity of F-FDTL, as well as security of infrastructure, equipment and military personnel.
2) In pursuit of this mission, PM prepares and employs its units, in accordance with the principles and guidelines established by law, and performs other missions of public interest with special relevance in the scope of Civil-Military Cooperation and support of foreign policy of the State, participating in the fulfillment of the respective international commitments.
3) It is also incumbent upon him to collaborate in the specific missions assigned to him in times of peace or in situations of tension or crisis and conflict.
The Military Police has its headquarters in Dili and has the following organization:
3) Communications Section
4) Sanitary Section
5) Intervention Platoon
6) Scout Platoon
7) Security Platoon
8) Transit Platoon
10. FALINTIL UNIT
- The FALINTIL Unit was created in 2015 and is in the process of implementation and development.